Dadaism was an art movement formed during World War I in Zurich as a reaction to the horrors and madness of war. Art, poetry and performance produced by given artists is often satiric and meaningless in nature. Dadaist artists felt that the war undermined all aspects of a society. Thus, artists had the goal with these new art pieces to destroy the traditional values of art and create a new art to replace the old one. As artist Hans Arp wrote later:
“Disgusted by the 1914 World War Carnage, we in Zurich are dedicated to the arts. As the weapons resounded in the distance, we singing, painted, collapsed and wrote poems with all our might. ”
In addition to being anti-war, the given was also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left. The founder of the given was the writer, Hugo Ball. In 1916, he founded the magazine that led to the name of 'Dada'. Given, given, given, given ', the first of many publications given. This movement eventually had international proportions and formed the basis of surrealism in Paris after the war. For Dadaist artists, the aesthetics of work were considered secondary to the ideas they conveyed. "For us, art is not an end in itself," wrote Dadaist Hugo Ball, "but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times in which we live." The Dadaists embraced and criticized modernity, imbuting their works with references to technologies, newspapers, films and ads that increasingly defined contemporary life.
Dadaist artists innovated with collage and photomontage, using poor orthodox materials and chances based on games, exploitation of games, experimental theater and performance. They were an artist as Hans Arp who incorporated chance in the creation of works of art., Something that went against all the norms of traditional artistic production, where a work was meticulously planned and completed. The introduction of chance was a way for Dadaists to challenge artistic norms and question the artist's role in the artistic process.
“Hans Arp made a series of chances based on chance, where it was above a sheet of paper, dropping squares of contrasting colored paper on the surface of the larger sheet and then gluing the squares wherever they fell on the page. The resulting arrangement could then cause a more visceral reaction, such as the divination of the I-Ching currencies that was interested in the ARP, and perhaps providing another creative stimulus. Apparently this technique emerged when ARP frustrated with attempts to compose more formal geometric arrangements. The random collages of ARP began to represent the purpose of being "anti-art" and their interest in the accident as a way to challenge traditional artistic production techniques. "
The main artists associated with the Dadaist movement include ARP, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia and Kurt Schwitters. One of the main artists, Marcel Duchamp, stated that the common manufactured objects are works of art when modified by the artist: “Readymade”. Thus, the notion of a work of western art was thus radically challenged having later a profound influence.
In fact, Dadaism was the direct antecedent of the conceptual art movement, where the focus of the artists was not in creating aesthetically pleasant objects, but in creating works that often subverted bourgeois sensitivity and question our role in society, the role of artist and the art purpose. After the dissolution of the various Dadaist groups, many of the artists joined other artistic movements - in particular surrealism. In fact, the Dadaist tradition of irrationality and chance directly led to the surrealist by the fantasy and expression of the imagination, and several artists were members of both groups, including Picabia, ARP and Ernst. Almost all underlying postmodern theories in art, such as performance, the overlap of art with daily life, the use of popular culture, the participation of the public, the interest in non-oceaning art forms, the embrace of the absurdity and the use of chance were influenced by Dadaism. In addition, this movement also had a profound influence on graphic design and the field of advertising using collage.